Our world is full of amazing beauty. Fascinated by nature, we sometimes become poets, sometimes artists. Paint his soft appearance by mixing the colors of his imagination and the form of nature. Soon nature changes its form, becoming terrible; Our thoughts became overwhelmed. Beauty swallows, civilization vanishes. Evidence of which is various natural disasters. Cyclones, tidal surges, earthquakes, floods, droughts, landslides, volcanoes, etc. endanger the lives of the people in various forms. These animosities of nature can be predicted from time to time, and sometimes silently. All of a sudden it disappears.
Suppose you are asleep at night. At that time, some areas around your house suddenly sank several hundred feet below the ground! Or he bought the hobby car after working hard, left the car in the parking lot and went to work. He came and saw that your car had sunk by itself. Even if you imagine all these, it is normal to be scared.
Unexplained landslides, large potholes, parking lots, instantaneous demolition, large-scale destruction of a city, and the formation of giant holes in cropland can all be described in one word. Says. Although the name is unfamiliar to many, the phenomenon of deep holes in the earth’s surface is not new. However, these issues are happening a lot recently.
What is a sinkhole?
In short, a sinkhole is a giant hole created suddenly in nature. Rainwater usually accumulates in a layer below the ground. When that water is lifted for various reasons, empty space is created under the ground. When the surface weight of the soil is high, huge holes are formed in the empty space.
Also under the ground where there is a large amount of limestone, carbonate rocks, salt layers, rocks, sand, etc., sinkholes or huge rectangular holes can be formed. This is because minerals are dissolved through groundwater. When the rock melts, the space under the ground increases. Gradually increasing the space, the load on the surface of the soil becomes unbearable. Once a surface landslide occurs, a sinkhole is created.
Each sinkhole can range in size from a few feet to several hundred feet, which takes decades to centuries to form. Naturally formed sinkholes can be of several types depending on the composition of the soil and the different types of minerals and rocks inside it; Such as- dissolution sinkhole, cover-subsidence sinkhole and cover collapse sinkhole.
Such sinkholes are found in soils where there is limestone or dolomite. Rainwater first comes in contact with the rock surface beneath the ground and from there dissolves the limestone and flows down through a pair or broken part of the carbonate bedrock. Thus the flow of water gradually increases. In this way the soil of the lower part erodes and sinks and a reservoir is formed.
Cover-subsidence sinkholes usually develop slowly in covered sedimentary and sandy areas. Where the coating material is relatively dense or the clay is more in the silt. Due to the high mass, the sand in the upper layer of the soil penetrates the carbonate bedrock and accumulates in the empty space below the soil. The topsoil thus erodes and forms hollow holes. Such sinkholes are small and take a long time to form and are rarely seen.
These types of sinkholes can suddenly become huge in just a few hours, and this can lead to major catastrophes. Such sinkholes are found in places where there is more clay in the cover sediment. Over time, the clay penetrates the carbonate bedrock and accumulates in the space, creating a gap in the surface of the carbonate bedrock. When the weight of the surface of the soil exceeds the tolerance limit, landslides form dramatically huge holes.
Surprisingly, sinkholes can be seen not only on land but also in water. The water penetrates deeper by penetrating the soil bedrock at the bottom of water bodies, rivers or seas. The various substances in the bedrock dissolve with the water and huge gaps are formed there. At one stage, when the weight of the water above the tolerable level is exceeded, it sinks to the bottom and gives birth to a sinkhole.
The deepest ‘underwater sinkhole’ in the world is in the South China Sea. It is locally known as ‘Dragon Hole’. It is about 96 feet (300 meters) deep. An interesting fact about this sinkhole is that more than twenty species of marine fish, also known as ‘blue holes’, have been found on the surface of the sinkhole. Just below it, that is, after 100 meters, there is no oxygen. As a result, it is almost impossible for any living thing to exist there.
Sinkholes can also be created due to man-made causes outside of nature. Sinkholes in populated areas are mostly man-made. Various types of underground construction and water lines are mainly responsible for this. These water lines that save our lives are once a threat to us. When there is a leakage or leakage in the water line that has been under the ground for years, the water from there seeps into the soil and creates a stream under the ground.
Thus it continues year after year and the tide continues to rise. Also, rainwater from the surface of the soil seeps into the soil and is added to it, and at one time the water table under the soil becomes huge. When various installations are made in the upper layer of the soil, when this load goes to an unbearable level, the installation there sinks into a huge hole in the ground and causes huge damage.
So far, innumerable small and large sinkholes have been made in different parts of the world. As a result, various biodiversity and civilizations have disappeared. Most sinkholes are found in various countries in America, the Middle East and Europe. In the United States, in the states of Florida, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Texas, etc. Sinkholes are also growing rapidly in the Turkish state of Konya, with the number of sinkholes nearly doubling in the past year. There are also numerous sinkholes in different countries of the world including Croatia, Italy, Mexico, Israel, Brazil, Australia. China has the largest sinkhole in the world. The sinkhole, called Xiaozai Tiankeng, is located in Fenji County, Chunking, with a depth of about 72 meters and a width of 511 meters.