Ancient India is undoubtedly an example of a unique civilization of the world, which has solidified its place in history in its own glory. This pasture of education, culture, religion, mythology and science was on one side as the pilgrimage of sages and sages, on the other hand it has given gifts to many world-renowned scientists, mathematicians and philosophers from time to time. The practice of science in India began in ancient times, which later contributed to the progress of the world.
The foundations of science, medicine and mathematics of other civilizations have been laid with the help of various things discovered in ancient India. The main reason behind their practice of mathematics was the attempt to unravel the mysteries of the world. They tried to explain everything around them mathematically, later on in the practice of mathematics in ancient Greece. Here is a discussion of some of the landmark discoveries of ancient India.
The idea of zero
Zero is one of the most important discoveries in the history of mathematics. Soon after the discovery of zero, the mathematical landscape of the world changed completely, and the path of human history was paved. Although the use of zero is common in the Mayan or Mesopotamian civilizations, the first systematic description of it is found in ancient India. They break the first zero into the shell of the signal or symbol, showing the achievement of using it as a direct number.
Zero was used in India in the ninth century BC when calculating real numbers. Zero is mentioned in the Indian mathematician Pingler’s Rhythm Sutras between the 5th and 2nd centuries BC. In the seventh century, the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta mentioned that adding or subtracting zero with a number does not change the number. Multiplying a number by zero also makes its value zero. And its value is undefined when shared! The word zero comes from the Sanskrit word ‘shunyoya’. It later became ‘Zero’ in Arabia and gradually became ‘Zero’ in the Western world.
Ten-based number system
The most common and popular in the world today is the decimal number system. This method originated based on the counting of ten fingers of two hands. The main point of the ten-based calculation method is the use of zero. Although the concept of zero was prevalent in ancient Mesopotamia, the Maya civilization, they considered zero to be an absence, a lack, and something ominous. Indian civilization is credited with the discovery and written use of the ten-based number system in the light of its effective use of zero. There are indications of the use of decimal numbers in India around 400 BC. In 498 BC, the mathematician Aryabhata mentioned in a Sanskrit poem, “Sthanam sthanam dus gunam” meaning space is ten times space. Which indicates the current spatial decimal number system.
The method of writing numbers became easier as a result of the formation of systematic rules of zero. No matter how large the number, it could be written effortlessly with the help of decimal number system using only 10 digits from 0-9. It is still being used worldwide. This knowledge, borrowed from India, was popularized by Arab mathematicians all over the world, including Europe. Arab scholars carried out extensive research on it and further improved it. The Hindustan number system was also referred to as the Hindu-Arabic number system as it was introduced by the Arabs all over the world.
Fibonacci sequence is an excellent technique for describing the beauty of mathematics. This Fibonacci sequence is found in various things in nature. For example, the number of petals in a daisy flower is almost always a Fibonacci number. The number of sunflower seeds arranged in a spiral structure is also found in this section. The Golden Ratio is closely related to the secret of beauty. Although the Italian mathematician Leonardo Fibonacci is considered to be the inventor of this genre, it is first mentioned in ancient Indian Sanskrit rhyme.
The first mention of this sequence in the second or fourth century BC was made by an ancient Indian sage named Pingala, about a thousand years before Fibonacci was born. Although no detailed description is available from Pingala, in the year 1050, about half a century before Fibonacci, a grammarian named Hemchandra mentions this feature of the genre. This trend is also mentioned in the works of ancient Indian mathematicians like Viranka and Gopala. The Fibonacci sequence originated to form a rhythmic pattern through rhythm-sequence as people searched for ways to easily construct Sanskrit poetry.
Binary or binary number system
Our most common decimal number but unable to understand computers or any machine, they understand only binary numbers (0 and 1). It is the basic instrument-language on which the computer or instrument performs all its functions. Although the English mathematician George Bull is credited with inventing the binary number system, the use of binary numbers was first mentioned in the lunar scriptures of the ancient Indian scholar Pingala. Between the fifth and second centuries BC, he invented the method of calculation with ‘binary numbers’. He uses a combination of lowercase and uppercase letters, similar to the current Morse code.
Chakrabala method of colon-rule
The equation found in the Cartesian coordinate system is one of the most important, because it indicates a hyperbola. The chakrabala method is a kind of circular calculus which is used to determine the indeterminate quadratic equations. The Chakrabala method was invented by the ancient Indian mathematician Brahmagupta. This well-known mathematician of the seventh century was the first to practice this equation. It was later refined by the Sanskrit poets Joydev and Bhaskaracharya, and was included in Bhaskaracharya’s ‘Algebra’.
Length measuring sticks and weights
Excavations at Harappa and Mohenjodaro in ancient India have uncovered many measuring sticks resembling ivory and shell scales, which were used to measure length. Remains of several scales have also been found. Their weight measurement method was based on 16. For example, 18, 64, 180, 320 etc. The origin of various weighing materials is traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization of ancient India. Various rectangular and round weights were used there.
The Indian philosopher Kannada came up with the idea of the atom 600 years before the birth of Christ. John Dalton, an English scientist famous for his atomic theory, discussed the atom thousands of years ago. According to this sage of ancient India, all matter is made up of tiny and indivisible particles. All atoms are the eternal matter and all inert matter is made up of atoms. He named these particles molecules. As he points out, these molecules can exist in two ways গতি absolutely stable or dynamic.
The doctrine of the heliocentric solar system
Ancient Indian mathematicians often used mathematical knowledge to make calculations about the movements of planets and stars, astronomy. Aryabhata, the legend of ancient mathematics, has recorded various information about mathematics and astronomy in a total of 116 hymns in four volumes in his book ‘Aryabhattiya’.
Aryabhata gave the idea of the heliocentric solar system and the ecliptic motion of the earth thousands of years before Galileo, Copernicus and Bruno. As he mentions in the book, the earth revolves around its own axis. He also calculated the axial motion of the earth. As a result, the circumference of the earth was 39.98 kilometers. At present, with the help of modern equipment, the circumference of the earth is about 40,234 kilometers. As such, the error rate was negligible, at only 0.2%. He was also able to make accurate predictions about the eclipses of the moon and the sun.
Melting of zinc metal
History has it that ancient India was the first to melt zinc during the distillation process. The method did not actually develop in a few years, it is basically a replica of the advanced technique of long experience derived from ancient alchemy. The inhabitants of ancient Persia also wanted to adopt this process with the help of an open fireplace, but they did not see the face of success. The process is said to have first been carried out in the Java region of the Tiri Valley in Rajasthan. This discovery of ancient India ushered in a new era in metallurgy.